This study examined the effect of food group intake on subsequent 2-y weight change. Foodfrequencyquestionnaire–based food intake data of 17,369 nonsmoking subjects of the European ProspectiveInvestigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort were examined in their relation to a subsequentweight change. Dietary data, collected from 1994 to 1998, were grouped into 24 food groups. Weight change peryear follow-up was the outcome of interest; large weight gain was defined as 2 kg; small weight gain as1 kgto 2 kg; large weight loss as 2 kg; small weight loss as 1 kg to2 kg and weight maintenance as 1kg. For each food group, a separate polytomous logistic regression model with stable weight as the referencegroup was constructed, controlling for age, body mass index, previous weight change, and behavioral and lifestylefactors. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) estimated the increase in risk associated with each 100g/d increment in food group intake. In women, consumption of high energy, high fat food groups significantlypredicted large weight gain, e.g., fats (OR1.75; 95% CI, 1.01–3.06), sauces (OR2.12; 95% CI, 1.17–3.82) and meat(OR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04–1.79), and the consumption of cereals predicted large weight loss (OR 1.43; 95% CI,1.09–1.88). In men, intake of high energy, high sugar foods, i.e., sweets, was significantly predictive of large weight gain(OR 1.48; 95% CI, 1.03–2.13). Our data show that a diet rich in high fat and high energy foods predicts short-termweight gain even if controlled for many potential confounding factors.